The Foundation Skills

Body Awareness

Body awareness is the internalised understanding of what the body is, it’s shape, size and what it looks like. Children learn best when their whole body is involved in the learning process.

Fine and Gross Motor Skills

Gross and fine motor coordination is the control of large and fine muscle movements. Control of large muscle movements develops before fine. The pencil grip is an example of a fine muscle movement.

Left and Right Brain Integration

Integration of the left and right brain hemispheres is important so that the whole brain is involved in the thinking and learning process. Getting both sides of the brain working together helps to develop the nerve pathways between the left and right hand side of the brain.


Baby (Primitive) and Postural Reflexes: Automatic reflexes that bring about involuntary postural movements. Usually inhibited or integrated during the first 12-18 months of life.

An important thing to understand about reflexes is that if a child’s baby reflexes are still strong, and their postural reflexes are under-developed, then this may impede development in other areas.

The Vestibular System

The vestibular system plays a role in balance (inner ear) and it also plays a crucial role in the child’s emotional and muscular development, as well as the development of vision, language and the ability to learn and concentrate.

Visual and Auditory

The necessary skills for comprehension and understanding of new material, to be able to correctly form letters, numbers and shapes, and for seeing differences in letters and words. It is the essential skill for reading, writing and working with numbers.